Bande Mataram Newspaper 

Bande Mataram Newspaper
'Bande Mataram' - A Daily Organ of Indian Nationalism

An Organ of Indian Nationalism

'Bande Mataram' was an English newspaper edited by Sri Aurobindo. Sri Aurobindo’s first preoccupation was to declare openly for complete and absolute independence as the aim of political action in India and to insist on this persistently in the pages of the journal.

The journal declared and developed a new political programme for the country as the programme of the Nationalist Party, non-cooperation, passive resistance, Swadeshi, Boycott, national education, settlement of disputes in law by popular arbitration and other items of Sri Aurobindo's plan. Sri Aurobindo published in the paper a series of articles on passive resistance, another developing a political philosophy of revolution and wrote many leaders aimed at destroying the shibboleths and superstitions of the Moderate Party.

The Bande Mataram was almost unique in journalistic history in the influence it exercised in converting the mind of a people and preparing it for revolution.

The Bande Mataram was almost unique in journalistic history in the influence it exercised in converting the mind of a people and preparing it for revolution.

A Force None Dared to Ignore

"Bande Mataram" ... at once secured for itself a recognised position in Indian journalism. The hand of the master was in it, from the very beginning. Its bold attitude, its vigorous thinking, its clear ideas, its chaste and powerful diction, its scorching sarcasm and refined witticism, were unsurpassed by any journal in the country, either Indian or Anglo-Indian. It at once raised the tone of every Bengali paper, and compelled the admiration of even hostile Anglo-Indian editors. Morning after morning, not only Calcutta but the educated community almost in every part of the country, eagerly awaited its vigorous pronouncements on the stirring question of the day. It even forced itself upon the notice of the callous and self-centered British press. Long extracts from it commenced to be reproduced week after week even in the exclusive columns of the "Times" in London. It was a force in the country which none dared to ignore, however much they might fear or hate it...

Bipin Chandra Pal

Voice of Nationalist Extremism

"It had a full-size sheet, was clearly printed on green paper, and was full of leading and special articles written in English with a brilliance and pungency not hitherto attained in the Indian Press. It was the most effective voice of what we then called nationalist extremism."

Extract from S. K. Ratcliffe, a previous editor of The Statesman, in a letter to the Manchester Guardian of 28 December 1950

Fiery Words

..The words of Bande Mataram will drive out your fear; steel your arms with the might of thunder; fire will course through your veins;...

Brahmabandhav Upadhyay in Sandhya newspaper

Intellectual Feast

"... I spare no opportunity of recommending your excellent paper to my friends as well as those whom I meet. For me it is generally an intellectual feast and it is my earnest desire that nothing will happen to mar its usefulness. It is doing a splendid service. May it live long is the earnest prayer..."

Lajpat Rai wrote (on 4 May 1907, just five days before his deportation):

The Leading Spirit, the Central Figure

Sri Aurobindo in Calcutta in September 1907
Sri Aurobindo in Calcutta in September 1907 after his acquittal in the Bande Mataram Sedition case

Teacher of a whole Nation

Bande Mataram... was a force in the country which none dared to ignore, however much they might fear or hate it, and Aravinda was the leading spirit, the central figure, in the new journal. The opportunities that were denied him in the National College he found in the pages of the "Bande Mataram", and from a tutor of a few youths he thus became the teacher of a whole nation..

Bepin Chandra Pal

Real Editor of Bande Mataram

"Sri Aurobindo was undoubtedly the real editor of the Extremist paper, the Bande Mataram, but still remained at large, partly owing to the number of 'prison editors' on his staff... the man who inspired official circles with the greatest alarm, because his influence, though least spoken of, was most profound..."

Henry Nevinson

The Bande Mataram Newspaper

Genesis

... Bipin Pal, who had been long expounding a policy of self-help and non-cooperation in his weekly journal, now started a daily with the name of Bande Mataram, but it was likely to be a brief adventure since he began with only Rs. 500 in his pocket and no firm assurance of financial assistance in the future. He asked Sri Aurobindo to join him in this venture to which a ready consent was given, for now Sri Aurobindo saw his opportunity for starting the public propaganda necessary for his revolutionary purpose.

Organ of Indian Nationalism

He called a meeting of the forward group of young men in the Congress and [they] decided then to organise themselves openly as a new political party joining hands with the corresponding group in Maharashtra under the proclaimed leadership of Tilak and to join battle with the Moderate party which was done at the Calcutta session. He also persuaded them to take up the Bande Mataram daily as their party organ and a Bande Mataram Company was started to finance the paper, whose direction Sri Aurobindo undertook during the absence of Bipin Pal who was sent on a tour in the districts to proclaim the purpose and programme of the new party. The new party was at once successful and the Bande Mataram paper began to circulate throughout India.

 Bande Mataram Limited Company  More 

The Staff Members

On its staff were not only Bipin Pal and Sri Aurobindo but some other very able writers, Shyam Sundar Chakravarty, Hemendra Prasad Ghose and Bejoy Chatterji. Shyam Sundar and Bejoy were masters of the English language, each with a style of his own; Shyam Sundar caught up something like Sri Aurobindo’s way of writing and later on many took his articles for Sri Aurobindo’s.

 Editing from a Silent Mind  More 

Departure of Bepin Pal

But after a time dissensions arose between Bipin Pal on one side and the other contributors and the directors of the Company because of temperamental incompatibility and differences of political view especially with regard to the secret revolutionary action with which others sympathised but to which Bipin Pal was opposed. This ended soon in Bipin Pal’s separation from the journal. Sri Aurobindo would not have consented to this departure, for he regarded the qualities of Pal as a great asset to the Bande Mataram, since Pal, though not a man of action or capable of political leadership, was perhaps the best and most original political thinker in the country, an excellent writer and a magnificent orator: but the separation was effected behind Sri Aurobindo’s back when he was convalescing from a dangerous attack of fever.

Sri Aurobindo's Control of Policy

His name was even announced without his consent in Bande Mataram as editor but for one day only, as he immediately put a stop to it since he was still formally in the Baroda service and in no way eager to have his name brought forward in public. Henceforward, however, he controlled the policy of the Bande Mataram along with that of the party in Bengal.

The Message

Bipin Pal had stated the aim of the new party as complete self-government free from British control but this could have meant or at least included the Moderate aim of colonial self-government and Dadabhai Naoroji as President of the Calcutta session of the Congress had actually tried to capture the name of Swaraj, the Extremists' term for indepenence, for this colonial self-government.

Absolute Independence as the Aim

Sri Aurobindo’s first preoccupation was to declare openly for complete and absolute independence as the aim of political action in India and to insist on this persistently in the pages of the journal; he was the first politician in India who had the courage to do this in public and he was immediately successful. The party took up the word Swaraj to express its own ideal of independence and it soon spread everywhere; but it was taken up as the ideal of the Congress much later on at the [Lahore] session of that body when it had been reconstituted and renovated under Nationalist leadership. The journal declared and developed a new political programme for the country as the programme of the Nationalist Party, non-cooperation, passive resistance, Swadeshi, Boycott, national education, settlement of disputes in law by popular arbitration and other items of Sri Aurobindo’s plan.

Doctrine of Passive Resistance

Sri Aurobindo published in the paper a series of articles on passive resistance, another developing a political philosophy of revolution and wrote many leaders aimed at destroying the shibboleths and superstitions of the Moderate Party, such as the belief in British justice and benefits bestowed by foreign government in India, faith in British law courts and in the adequacy of the education given in schools and universities in India and stressed more strongly and persistently than had been done the emasculation, stagnation or slow progress, poverty, economic dependence, absence of a rich industrial activity and all other evil results of a foreign government; he insisted especially that even if an alien rule were benevolent and beneficent, that could not be a substitute for a free and healthy national life. Assisted by this publicity the ideas of the Nationalists gained ground everywhere especially in the Punjab which had before been pre-dominantly moderate. The Bande Mataram was almost unique in journalistic history in the influence it exercised in converting the mind of a people and preparing it for revolution.

 Doctrine of Passive Resistance  More 

Financial weakness

But its weakness was on the financial side; for the Extremists were still a poor man’s party. So long as Sri Aurobindo was there in active control, he managed with great difficulty to secure sufficient public support for running the paper, but not for expanding it as he wanted,...

 Financial Weakness of a Nationalist Paper  More 




'Bande Mataram' Sedition Case

    Arrest Warrant for Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram Sedition Case
    Arrest Warrant for Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram Sedition Case

In August, 1907, The British sought to prosecute Sri Aurobindo under section 124A of Indian Penal Code for sedition as editor of Bande Mataram. The charges were made on the basis of a technical violation of law by 'a reprint of the official translations of certain articles from a vernacular paper' [Yugantar] that were related to a Sedition Case and 'an insignificant correspondence which did not even profess to give voice to the policy of the paper'.

Arrest and Acquittal

Sri Aurobindo was arrested on 16.August.1907 and released on bail the next morning. On 23.September.1907, Magistrate Kingsford ruled that the Prosecution had failed to prove that Sri Aurobindo was the Editor. Thus Sri Aurobindo was acquitted. Kingsford also did not find any evidence to support that "the Bande Mataram habitually publishes seditious matter".

Complete and Dismal Fiasco

The aim of prosecution was clear: to crush Bande Mataram and silence Sri Aurobindo, 'the master mind behind the paper', 'the one man who was wanted and none other'. The Bureaucracy held all the winning cards: a Civilian Magistrate, whose leanings had never been concealed, their own servants as part of Jury, a Police force with unlimited powers to generate evidence and witnesses. Yet not a scrap of convincing evidence was found. The prosecution of Sri Aurobindo in the 'Bande Mataram Sedition Case' thus ended in 'the most complete and dismal fiasco' for the British Government.

Reference: Documents in the Life of Sri Aurobindo > The Bande Mataram Case

Consequence of the Sedition Case

Bande Mataram - Weekly Newspaper
Sri Aurobindo in Calcutta in September 1907 after his acquittal in the Bande Mataram Sedition case

Leader Forced into Public View

..[Sri Aurobindo] preferred to remain and act and even to lead from behind the scenes without his name being known in public; it was the Government’s action in prosecuting him as editor of the Bande Mataram that forced him into public view. And from that time forward he became openly, what he had been for sometime already, a prominent leader of the Nationalist party, its principal leader in action in Bengal and the organiser there of its policy and strategy.

Extract from: CWSA > Autobiographical Notes > Political Life, 1893-1910 > Page 52

Never Ardent about Fame

I do not care a button about my having my name in any blessed place. I was never ardent about fame even in my political days; I preferred to remain behind the curtain, push people without their knowing it and get things done. It was the confounded British Government that spoiled my game by prosecuting me [as editor of Bande Mataram] and forcing me to be publicly known as a "leader".

Extract from: CWSA > Letters on Himself.. > Writing for Publication > Page 71

No Opportunity for Sedition Charges

Reports on Yugantar Sedition Case
Reports on 'Yugantar Sedition Case' in Bande Mataram newspaper

'Diabolically Clever' Editorials

..the prosecution was for a letter written by somebody to the Editor and for the publication of articles included in the Jugantar case but not actually used by the prosecution. The Bande Mataram was never prosecuted for its editorial articles. The editor of the Statesman complained that they were too diabolically clever, crammed full of sedition between the lines, but legally unattackable because of the skill of the language. The Government must have shared this view, for they never ventured to attack the paper for its editorial or other articles, whether Sri Aurobindo’s or from the pen of his three editorial colleagues. There is also the fact that Sri Aurobindo never based his case for freedom on racial hatred or charges of tyranny or misgovernment, but always on the inalienable right of the nation to independence. His stand was that even good government could not take the place of national government, - independence.

Extract from: CWSA > Autobiographical Notes > The Bande Mataram Sedition Case > Page 81

 No element of Racial Hatred  More 

The Chain of Events

Police Search at 2/1 Creek Row

On 30 July 1907, the 'Bande Mataram' Office premises at 2/1 Creek Row, were searched. A body-warrant was furnished but not served. The next day the 'Bande Mataram' described the raid in its columns.

"The wolf has come at last.... Inspector Lahiri with the Casabianca like devotion to duty ransacked every creek and corner of the Manager's office and caught hold of everything that bore the semblance of paper.... They spent nearly two hours in the Office of the Joint Stock Company and went on with the same monotonous investigation and after a laborious search Lahiri afterwards stepped out of the room and paced the corridor heroically, carrying in both of his hands a cart load of booty. Lahiri seems to be the presiding genius of the Detective Department. Nothing escapes his vigilance; he suspects sedition bacillus in every bit of paper, closely eyes it, devours its contents and includes it into his trophy. Then they turned-towards the editorial room where the whole staff offered to sweeten their labour by jovial talk, evil retorts and repartees...Here ends the much expected search and the sequel will be felt in due time."

From Sujata Nahar > Mother's Chronicles - Book Five > Page 357
Arrest Warrant for Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram Sedition Case
Arrest Warrant for Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram Sedition Case

The Arrest & Bail

On 16.August.1907, at about 11 a.m., a Detective Officer went to the 'Bande Mataram' Office premises at 2/1 Creek Row and informed that a warrant had been issued for the arrest of Sri Aurobindo (as reported in 'The Bengalee' newspaper). On receiving the information, Sri Aurobindo voluntarily presented himself at the Detective Police Office, Royd Street that night at about 9:30 p.m. He was arrested at once by Inspector Purna Chandra Lahiri. Sri Aurobindo was taken to Padmapukur police station and then released on bail the next morning. Principal [Bangabasi College], Girish Chandra Bose and Sj. Nirode Chandra Mallick [of 12, Wellington Square] agreed to stand surety for him of Rs. 2500 each.

From Sujata Nahar > Mother's Chronicles - Book Five > Page 359

Public Reactions to Arrest

Rabindranath's Namashkar to Sri Aurobindo
Rabindranath's Namashkar to Sri Aurobindo published in Bande Mataram newspaper on 8.September.1907

Rabindranath's Salute Know More 

Rabindranath Tagore was in Bolpur, at his Santiniketan Ashram, when the news of Sri Aurobindo's arrest in the 'Bande Mataram Sedition Case' reached him. It was then that he wrote his inspired poem in Bengali: 'Namashkar', in which he described Sri Aurobindo as 'the Voice Incarnate of India's Soul'.

Reference: Rabindranath Tagore

Outpouring of Sympathy

The news of Babu Aravindo Ghose's arrest spread all over India like wildfire. And the nation grieved. On 22 August the Bande Mataram reprinted extracts from many newspapers, such as Indian Daily News, Empire, Maharatta, Madras Standard, Indian Patriot..

From Jhalakati, Barisal

"We heartily sympathise with you in your trouble which has been brought on you for your unflinching devotion to the Swadeshi cause and for the independence of thought and the force of language which you have displayed all along in gallantly supporting the Swadeshi cause. We fervently pray to God for your ultimate success."

From Tuticorin

"The prosecution of Bande Mataram, the daily Nationalist organ of new thoughts at Calcutta, has brought to light the hidden jewel and priceless gem of its Editor, Mr. Arabinda Ghose. It was a real feast of reason and flow of soul to read the thrilling discourses in its leading columns. Within the short period of its existence it has done more to awaken Nationalistic and patriotic aspirations than any other known power of agency...."

From a public meeting of the Swadeshi Manda at Amraoti

"The several speakers dwelt upon the rare attainments, the sage-like career and the exemplary character of Babu Aurobindo Ghose whose [vigorous] writings have gained him an abiding name in the journalistic literature of India."

From the Sanmitra Samaj, Poona

"We regard Srijut Aurobindo Ghose as a true champion of the Nationalists, a patriot of the patriots and a worthy model of the young generation of the Motherland. His sacrifice is great, but without it none can really be great. We sincerely believe that his name will occupy a high place in the history of future India."

From Daccaprakash

"The patriotism of this great man and his uncommon self-sacrifice attracted the heart of every son of Bengal. It rends the heart to say that the man who, in response to the call of duty, thus threw away all luxuries of life and was, though a human being, exhibiting divine traits, is now like a thief being sent to jail by the rulers of this land! Alas! the unfortunate land Our reckless rulers are yet unable to understand that as a result of their misdeeds a fire of disgust is burning in the country which it will be beyond their power to extinguish."

Repression and Unity

...The second year of the paper's existence has begun with a prosecution for sedition, but circumstances have so changed that in its hour of trial it has the sympathy of the whole of Bengal at its back. We note with satisfaction and gratitude that all classes of men, rich and poor, all shades of opinion, moderate or extremist, the purveyors of ready-made loyalty alone excepted, have given us a sympathy and support which is not merely emotional. This growing unity is mainly due to the action of the bureaucracy in attempting to put down by force a movement which has now taken possession of the nation's heart beyond the possibility of dislodgment...

From CWSA > Bande Mataram > Repression and Unity
Reports on Yugantar Sedition Case
Reports on 'Yugantar Sedition Case' in Bande Mataram newspaper

The Prosecution Charges

Sri Aurobindo was charged under Section 124A of Indian Penal Code with having attempted to excite Sedition against the Government. The charges were related to an Article titled "Politics for Indians" and republication of certain seditious articles which originally appeared in Yugantar newspaper. Sri Aurobindo was alleged to be the Editor of Bande Mataram newspaper. Hemendra Nath Bagchi, the Manager and Apurba Krisna Bose, the Printer were also arrested and charged.

The Standing counsel for the Government, Mr. Gregory asserted: "The whole tone of this article is of a seditious nature", in the court of Chief Presidency Magistrate, Douglas H. Kingsford. The Prosecution presented the testimony of an erstwhile proof-reader, Anukul Mukherji to prove that Sri Aurobindo was the Editor.

Sri Aurobindo in Calcutta in September 1907

Sri Aurobindo in Calcutta in September 1907 after his acquittal in the Bande Mataram Sedition case

The Acquittal

Magistrate Kingsford delivered his verdict on 23.September.1907. After careful consideration of the evidence presented, including the testimony of Anukul Mukherjee (who had broken down during cross-examination and made admissions fatal to the Prosecution's case), he acquitted Sri Aurobindo saying: "..the inference I draw is that the evidence is inconclusive. I find in it nothing which is materially inconsistent with the theory that Arabinda is a mere member of the editorial staff and that he is without responsibility for and without cognisance of the articles charged..". The Magistrate also acquitted the Manager, Hemendranath Bagchi.

The Prosecution Fiasco

Magistrate Kingsford further noted: "The publication of Articles has been proved... There is no evidence before me to indicate that the 'Bande Mataram' habitually publishes seditious matter, and I must therefore assume that the articles charged form an exception to its general tone". Accordingly he sentenced the Printer, Apurba Krishna Bose, to rigorous imprisonment for three months.

Public Reactions to Acquittal

From Purba Bangla, Dacca

"Today let sounds of mirth rise from all directions, and let 'Bande Mataram' be shouted with immense joy, piercing the Indian firmament.... This joy is not the outcome of tasting pleasure after a period of sorrow. For we have no ground to be sorry.... But when we saw that a devotee to the Mother, in his desire to worship her, was about to be burnt by the fiery anger of alien rulers, when we understood that in his attempt to restore the pristine glory of India and to bring under control the ideal of ancient India, the worthy son of the country was at every moment apprehending the fall of the thunderbolt as a result of the ire of the rulers upon his exposed head, we indeed prayed to God for his safety from danger, but we were not sorry for him. For he who has been suffering from persecution for his devotion to the country has his life blessed and his sacred personality, like a living ideal, will point out the duties of the Indians desirous of salvation. We are, therefore, glad indeed not because Arabinda has been let off, but because we have seen justice triumphant over injustice. Today we shall thank God alone, to whom is due all glory, and no man has any claim upon it."

Making a Fool..

B. B. Upadhyay's 'Sandhya' newspaper commented gleefully, "The Bande Mataram newspaper has pulled you [The British Government] by both your ears, and slapped both your cheeks and made fools of you in the middle of the market place."

Hand of Providece

"The result of the Bande Mataram trial has been made known to the public by a telegraphic communication. Babu Arabindo Ghose, who was arraigned as Editor, has been acquitted.... His learning and patriotism are so profound that in his acquittal we discern the hand of providence."

From Tilak's Kesri

The Glorious End

... and when Sri Aurobindo was arrested and held in jail for a year [in the 'Alipore Bomb Case'], the economic situation of Bande Mataram became desperate: finally, it was decided that the journal should die a glorious death rather than perish by starvation and Bejoy Chatterji was commissioned to write an article for which the Government would certainly stop the publication of the paper. Sri Aurobindo had always taken care to give no handle in the editorial articles of the Bande Mataram either for a prosecution for sedition or any other drastic action fatal to its existence; an editor of The Statesman complained that the paper reeked with sedition patently visible between every line but it was so skilfully written that no legal action could be taken. The manoeuvre succeeded and the life of the Bande Mataram came to an end in Sri Aurobindo’s absence.

Extract from: CWSA > Autobiographical Notes > Political Life, 1893-1910 > Page 54 

Also..

Bipin Chandra Pal
Bipin Chandra Pal

Bipin Pal's 'Contempt of Court'

Bipin Pal was subpoenaed by the government as one of its witnesses in the [Bande Mataram Sedition] Case.

"I honestly believe," said Pal, refusing to testify, "that prosecutions like that of the Bande Mataram are unjust and injurious; unjust because they are subversive of the rights of the people, and injurious because they are calculated to stifle freedom of thought and speech - nor are they justified in the interest of public peace. I have accordingly conscientious objection to take any part in that prosecution. I therefore refuse to be sworn or affirmed in that case."

For his refusal, Bipin Pal was charged with 'Contempt of court', sentenced to six months' imprisonment and sent to Buxar Jail.

From Sujata Nahar > Mother's Chronicles - Book Five


'The Martyrdom of Bipin..'

The country will not suffer by the incarceration of this great orator and writer, this spokesman and prophet of Nationalism, nor will Bipin Chandra himself suffer by it. He has risen ten times as high as he was before in the estimation of his countrymen: ... He will come out of prison with his power and influence doubled, and Nationalism has already become the stronger for his self-immolation. Posterity will judge between him and the petty tribunal which has treated his honourable scruples as a crime.

Refer: Bande Mataram > 12.Sep.1907 > 'The Martyrdom of Bipin Chandra'

Sushil Kumar Sen
Sushil Kumar Sen

Caning of Sushil Sen

Sushil Sen was part of a crowd that gathered on 27.August.1907 outside the court-room at Lal Bazar in support of Bipin Chandra Pal, who was on trial for 'contempt of court' in refusing to testify in the 'Bande Mataram Sedition Case'. The presiding Judge, Douglas Kingford, ordered that the compound be cleared of the boisterous throng. The policemen drove away the crowd with lathis. The young Sushil struck by an English sub-inspector, returned the blow and a fight ensued.

Sketch of Police Headquarters at Lal Bazar
Sketch of Police Headquarters at Lal Bazar

The newspaper Sandhya described it thus: Everybody who saw Susil's heroic conduct in the fracas at Lal Bazar was amazed. When Susil saw a red-faced inspector assaulting a number of people without any provocation, he stepped into the fray and in so doing got assaulted himself. ... Susil was a youth of fourteen, whereas the red-faced man was a huge and heavy fellow. But Susil's zest was a thing to see.... The red-faced fellow was thoroughly worsted.

Stoic endurance

Sushil was immediately arrested and tried the next day for assaulting a police officer. Kingsford ordered the boy to be given fifteen 'stripes' - fifteen strokes on the bared buttocks with a rattan cane. The inhuman severity of the punishment created a public outcry. Sushil bore his punishment resolutely, for, as the Bande Mataram noted, it would have been 'derogatory to the national cause to show any sign of weakness'. Sushil's courage in facing the police-officer and stoic endurance of his caning drew widespread admiration.

From The Birched Hero - Sushil Kumar Sen




Bande Mataram as Mantra

more 

Bankim as Seer

The third and supreme service of Bankim to his nation was that he gave us the vision of our Mother.... It was thirty-two years ago that Bankim wrote his great song and few listened; but in a sudden moment of awakening from long delusions the people of Bengal looked around for the truth and in a fated moment somebody sang 'Bande Mataram'. The mantra had been given and in a single day a whole people had been converted to the religion of patriotism. The Mother had revealed herself. Once that vision has come to a people, there can be no rest, no peace, no further slumber till the temple has been made ready, the image installed and the sacrifice offered. A great nation which has had that vision can never again be placed under the feet of the conqueror...

Refer: CWSA > Bande Mataram > 16.April.1907 > 'Rishi Bankim Chandra' > Page 318

Hymn to the Mother 

Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving, Mother of might,
Mother free.
Glory of moonlight dreams
Over thy branches and lordly streams, -
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease,
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother, I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow....
more 

 


All extracts and quotations from the written works of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother and the Photographs of the Mother and Sri Aurobindo are copyright Sri Aurobindo Ashram Trust, Pondicherry -605002 India.
All other Rights and Content Reserved - Copyright © Sri Aurobindo Institute of Culture (SAIoC).